On 24 December , an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced. The city employed light guards who had to follow a specific schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the lanterns.
It was the largest battle in Europe before the First World War and the coalition victory ended Napoleon 's presence in Germany and would ultimately lead to his first exile on Elba.
The Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed in In addition to stimulating German nationalism, the war had a major impact in mobilizing a civic spirit in numerous volunteer activities.
Many volunteer militias and civic associations were formed, and collaborated with churches and the press to support local and state militias, patriotic wartime mobilization, humanitarian relief and postwar commemorative practices and rituals.
When it was made a terminus of the first German long-distance railway to Dresden the capital of Saxony in , Leipzig became a hub of Central European railway traffic, with Leipzig Hauptbahnhof the largest terminal station by area in Europe.
The railway station has two grand entrance halls, the eastern one for the Royal Saxon State Railways and the western one for the Prussian state railways.
In the 19th century, Leipzig was a centre of the German and Saxon liberal movements. Leipzig expanded rapidly to more than , inhabitants.
Huge Gründerzeit areas were built, which mostly survived both war and post-war demolition. With the opening of a fifth production hall in , the Leipziger Baumwollspinnerei became the largest cotton mill company on the continent, housing over , spindles.
During the s and s, music was prominent throughout Leipzig. However, in , it was closed due to World War II. It re-opened soon after the war ended in He was well known as an opponent of the Nazi regime.
On Kristallnacht in , the Moorish Revival Leipzig synagogue , one of the city's most architecturally significant buildings, was deliberately destroyed.
Goerdeler was later executed by the Nazis on 2 February Beginning in , many Jewish citizens of Leipzig were members of the Gemeinde , a large Jewish religious community spread throughout Germany , Austria and Switzerland.
In October , the Gemeinde helped found the Lehrhaus English: Jewish studies were emphasized and much of the Jewish community of Leipzig became involved.
Like all other cities claimed by the Nazis, Leipzig was subject to aryanisation. Beginning in and increasing in , Jewish business owners were forced to give up their possessions and stores.
This eventually intensified to the point where Nazi officials were strong enough to evict the Jewish people from their own homes.
They also had the power to force many of the Jews living in the city to sell their houses. Many people who sold their homes emigrated elsewhere, outside of Leipzig.
Others moved to Judenhäuser, which were smaller houses that acted as ghettos, housing large groups of people. As with other cities in Europe during the Holocaust , the Jewish people of Leipzig were impacted greatly by the Nuremberg Laws.
However, due to the Leipzig Trade Fair and the international attention it garnered, Leipzig was especially cautious about its public image.
Despite this, the Leipzig authorities were not afraid to strictly apply and enforce anti-semitic measures. Many of these Zionists attempted to flee before deportations began.
On 9 November , as part of Kristallnacht , in Gottschedstrasse German: Following the war, the Communist Party of Germany German: In , a census recorded that over 11, Jews were living in Leipzig.
In the census, the number had fallen to roughly 4,, and by January only 2, remained. In that month, these 2, Jews began to be deported.
According to records of the two waves of deportations to Auschwitz there were no survivors. According to records of the Theresienstadt deportation, only 53 Jews survived.
Until late , there was little threat of aerial bombings to the city. However, on the morning of 4 December , the British Royal Air Force dropped over 1, tons of explosives, resulting in the death of nearly 1, civilians.
Due to the close proximity of many of the buildings hit, a firestorm occurred. This prompted firefighters to rush to the city; however, the storm was too overwhelming for them.
Unlike its neighbouring city of Dresden , this was a largely conventional bombing with high explosives rather than incendiaries. The resultant pattern of loss was a patchwork, rather than wholesale loss of its centre, but was nevertheless extensive.
The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Leipzig in late April The United States turned the city over to the Red Army as it pulled back from the line of contact with Soviet forces in July to the designated occupation zone boundaries.
In the midth century, the city's trade fair assumed renewed importance as a point of contact with the Comecon Eastern Europe economic bloc, of which East Germany was a member.
At this time, trade fairs were held at a site in the south of the city, near the Monument to the Battle of the Nations. In October , after prayers for peace at St.
Nicholas Church , established in as part of the peace movement, the Monday demonstrations started as the most prominent mass protest against the East German government.
Nowadays, Leipzig is an important economic center in Germany. Since the s, the city has been celebrated by the media as a hip urban center with a very high quality of living.
After ten years of construction, the Leipzig City Tunnel opened on 14 December The site is characterized by swampy areas such as the Leipzig Riverside Forest , though there are also some limestone areas to the north of the city.
The landscape is mostly flat though there is also some evidence of moraine and drumlins. Although there are some forest parks within the city limits, the area surrounding Leipzig is relatively unforested.
During the 20th century, there were several open-cast mines in the region, many of which are being converted to use as lakes.
Leipzig is also situated at the intersection of the ancient roads known as the Via Regia King's highway , which traversed Germany in an east-west direction, and the Via Imperii Imperial Highway , a north-south road.
Leipzig was a walled city in the Middle Ages and the current "ring" road around the historic centre of the city follows the line of the old city walls.
Since Leipzig has been divided administratively into ten districts, which in turn contain a total of 63 subdistricts. Some of these correspond to outlying villages which have been annexed by Leipzig.
Like many places located in Eastern parts of Germany, Leipzig has an oceanic climate Köppen climate classification Cfb with significant continental influences due to inland location.
Precipitation in winter is about half that of the summer. The amount of sunshine is very different between winter and summer, with an average of around 51 hours of sunshine in December 1.
Leipzig has a population of about , In the population reached its historical peak of over , It decreased steadily from until to about , In the s the population decreased rather rapidly to , in This reduction was mostly due to outward migration and suburbanization.
After almost doubling the city area by incorporation of surrounding towns in , the number stabilized and started to rise again with an increase of 1, in In recent years inward migration accelerated, reaching an increase of 12, in In the years following German reunification many people of working age took the opportunity to move to the states of the former West Germany to seek work.
This was a contributory factor to falling birth rates. Births dropped from 7, in to less than 3, in In it reached 5, newborns resulting in a RNI of The unemployment rate decreased from The percentage of the population with an immigrant background is low compared with other German cities.
As of [update] , only 5. The number of people with an immigrant background immigrants and their children grew from 49, in to 77, in , making them The largest minorities first and second generation in Leipzig by country of origin in are: The historic central area of Leipzig features a Renaissance-style ensemble of buildings from the 16th century, including the old city hall in the market place.
There are also several baroque period trading houses and former residences of rich merchants. As Leipzig grew considerably during the economic boom of the late 19th century, the town has many buildings in the historicist style representative of the Gründerzeit era.
The new city hall , completed in , is built in the same style. Some 64, apartments in Leipzig were built in Plattenbau buildings during the Communist rule in East Germany.
Paul's Church was destroyed by the communists in to make room for a new main building for the university.
After some debate, the city decided to establish a new, mainly secular building at the same location, called Paulinum , which was completed in Its architecture alludes to the look of the former church and it includes space for religious use by the faculty of theology, including the original altar from the old church and two newly built organs.
Many commercial buildings were built in the s as a result of tax breaks after German reunification. The tallest structure in Leipzig is the chimney of the Stahl- und Hartgusswerk Bösdorf GmbH with a height of metres feet.
With metres feet , the City-Hochhaus Leipzig is the tallest high-rise building in Leipzig. From to it was Germany's tallest building.
One of the highlights of the city's contemporary arts was the Neo Rauch retrospective opening in April at the Leipzig Museum of Fine Arts. This is a show devoted to the father of the New Leipzig School   of artists.
According to The New York Times ,  this scene "has been the toast of the contemporary art world" for the past decade. In addition, there are eleven galleries in the so-called Spinnerei.
The Grassi Museum complex contains three more of Leipzig's major collections: The university also runs the Museum of Antiquities. Leipzig's first private museum dedicated to contemporary art in Leipzig after the turn of the millennium is located in the city centre close to the famous St.
Thomas Church on the third floor of the former GDR processing centre. Federal Administrative Court of Germany. Propsteikirche in May , New Town Hall in the background.
Leipzig is well known for its large parks. The Leipziger Auwald riparian forest lies mostly within the city limits.
Neuseenland is an area south of Leipzig where old open-cast mines are being converted into a huge lake district. It is planned to be finished in Thomas Church Choir , at the St.
Thomas Church , the St. Nicholas Church and the Paulinerkirche , the university church of Leipzig destroyed in The composer Richard Wagner was born in Leipzig in , in the Brühl.
Robert Schumann was also active in Leipzig music, having been invited by Felix Mendelssohn when the latter established Germany's first musical conservatoire in the city in Gustav Mahler was second conductor working under Artur Nikisch at the Leipzig Opera from June until May , and achieved his first significant recognition while there by completing and publishing Carl Maria von Weber 's opera Die Drei Pintos.
Mahler also completed his own 1st Symphony while living in Leipzig. Today the conservatory is the University of Music and Theatre Leipzig.
The drama departments teach acting and scriptwriting. The Bach-Archiv Leipzig , an institution for the documentation and research of the life and work of Bach and also of the Bach family , was founded in Leipzig in by Werner Neumann.
The Bach-Archiv organizes the prestigious International Johann Sebastian Bach Competition , initiated in as part of a music festival marking the bicentennial of Bach's death.
The competition is now held every two years in three changing categories. The Bach-Archiv also organizes performances, especially the international festival Bachfest Leipzig de and runs the Bach-Museum.
The city's musical tradition is also reflected in the worldwide fame of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra , under its chief conductor Riccardo Chailly , and the Thomanerchor.
Its current chief conductor is Kristjan Järvi. For over 60 years Leipzig has been offering a "school concert"  programme for children in Germany, with over concerts every year in venues such as the Gewandhaus and over 40, children attending.
As for contemporary music, Leipzig is known for its independent music scene and subcultural events. Leipzig has for 20 years been home to the world's largest Gothic festival, the annual Wave-Gotik-Treffen WGT , where thousands of fans of gothic and dark styled music from across Europe gather in the early summer.
Mayhem 's notorious album Live in Leipzig was also recorded at the Eiskeller club. Several venues offer live music on a daily basis, including the Moritzbastei  which was once part of the city's fortifications, and is one of the oldest student clubs in Europe with concerts in various styles.
For over 15 years "Tonelli's"  has been offering free weekly concerts every day of the week, though door charges may apply Saturdays.
The cover photo for the Beirut band's album Gulag Orkestar , according to the sleeve notes, was stolen from a Leipzig library by Zach Condon.
The city of Leipzig is also the birthplace of Till Lindemann , best known as the lead vocalist of Rammstein , a band formed in View over Augustusplatz with the Gewandhaus.
Moritzbastei is the largest student club in Germany and is famous for its atmosphere and large number of cultural and music events. Monument of Johann Sebastian Bach.
More than sport clubs in the city represent 78 different disciplines. Over athletic facilities are available to citizens and club members.
The city was the venue for the FIFA World Cup draw, and hosted four first-round matches and one match in the round of 16 in the central stadium.
VfB Leipzig, now 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig , won the first national Association football championship in The club was reformed as 1.
The newly founded RB Leipzig declared the intention to come up through the ranks of German football to bring Bundesliga football back to the region. Bundesliga season as runners-up.
The RB Leipzig women's football team was formed in and began play in the season. The club began play in the season. Since the beginning of the 20th century Ice hockey gained popularity and several local clubs established departments dedicated to that sport.
They finally promoted to Handball-Bundesliga as champions of 2. Bundesliga in —15 season. They play in the Arena Leipzig witch have a capacity of 6, spectators in HBL games but can take up to 7, spectators for handball in maximum capacity.
Handball-Club Leipzig is one of the most successful women's handball clubs in Germany, winning 20 domestic championships since and 3 Champions League titles.
The team was however relegated to the third tier league in due to failing to achieve the economic standard demanded by the league licence. Leipzig also hosted the Fencing World Cup in and hosts a number of international competitions in a variety of sports each year.
Leipzig made a bid to host the Summer Olympic Games. The bid did not make the shortlist after the International Olympic Committee pared the bids down to 5.
Markkleeberger See is a new lake next to Markkleeberg , a suburb on the south side of Leipzig. A former open-pit coal mine, it was flooded in with groundwater and developed in as a tourist area.
Leipzig Rugby Club competes in the German Rugby Bundesliga but finished at the bottom of their group in Leipzig University , founded , is one of Europe's oldest universities.
The philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was born in Leipzig in , and attended the university from to Other former staff of faculty include mineralogist Georg Agricola , writer Gotthold Ephraim Lessing , philosopher Ernst Bloch , eccentric founder of psychophysics Gustav Theodor Fechner , and psychologist Wilhelm Wundt.
Among the university's many noteworthy students were writers Johann Wolfgang Goethe and Erich Kästner , and philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche , political activist Karl Liebknecht , and composer Richard Wagner.
Germany's chancellor since , Angela Merkel , studied physics at Leipzig University. After its closure in the institute was refounded in with new teachers.
The school also houses an Institute for Theory. The University of Music and Theatre offers a broad range of subjects ranging from training in orchestral instruments, voice, interpretation, coaching, piano chamber music, orchestral conducting, choir conducting and musical composition to acting and scriptwriting.
Can I get an appropriate child seat? Is it really the taxi van I ordered? What happens if my flight arrives with a delay? How does the payment and invoicing work?
Based on your flight data the driver will check your arrival time and anticipate you with a name sign at the airport.
Simply enter the scheduled flight arrival time as transfer start time of the booking form. Your driver will await you after the luggage claim area - in rare occasions at the airport "meeting point".
The contact info of the taxi company will be sent together with the order confirmation "ride dispatched". For Premium or Business Class airport transfers extra seats for children older than one year of age can be booked at no extra fee.
Please specify your exact requirements in the comment field when ordering. During the ordering process the transfer costs will be authorized on your credit card.
A few banks show this as a charge on your statement. In fact we charge after the ride and send the receipt by email.
The following table gives you a first overview. For further planning and potential bookings please use the booking form. Better Taxi Airport Transfers in Leipzig Located 22 km outside of Leipzig itself, airport transfers from Leipzig Airport will take approximately 30 minutes when traveling to Leipzig itself.
Travelers to the neighboring Saxony city of Halle, on the other hand, should expect an airport shuttle to take up to 40 minutes due to the increased distance.